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Follow Us. App Download. US UK. Thank you for subscribing! Please check your email to confirm your subscription. Our Stores. Item : Qty 1 2 3 Add to cart. Note : Power converter may require for using some electronic products. In general, more power consumption within a certain time period causes more heat to be generated, which can cause problems in some cases such as battery fires, malfunctioning components due to overheating, and quick losses of electricity. Compared to hardware and software development of general-purpose computers, embedded system development has higher technical requirements.
For example, developers of embedded software often must understand the working principles and mechanisms of the hardware and hardware layers during the development stage. Input and output are characteristics of any open system, and the embedded system is no exception. In the embedded system, the hardware and software often collaborate to deal with various input signals from the outside and output the processing results through some form. The input signal may be an ergonomic device such as a keyboard, mouse, or touch screen or the output of a sensor circuit in another embedded system.
The output may be in the form of sound, light, electricity, or another analog signal, or a record or file for a database. In many cases, the microprocessor in an embedded system is also called the CPU. Memory is used to store instructions and data. External devices include secondary storage devices such as flash and hard disk , communications equipment, and terminal equipment.
There are basically two types of architecture that apply to embedded systems: Von Neumann architecture and Harvard architecture. In the Von Neumann architecture, an instruction and data share the same bus. In this architecture, the transmission of information becomes the bottleneck of computer performance and affects the speed of data processing; so, it is often called the Von Neumann bottleneck.
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In reality, cache and branch-prediction technology can effectively solve this issue. Because the Harvard architecture has separate program memory and data memory, it can provide greater data-memory bandwidth, making it the ideal choice for digital signal processing. Most systems designed for digital signal processing DSP adopt the Harvard architecture.
The Von Neumann architecture features simple hardware design and flexible program and data storage and is usually the one chosen for general-purpose and most embedded systems. Commonly, the only difference between the Harvard architecture and the Von Neumann architecture is single or dual L1 cache. In the Harvard architecture, the L1 cache is often divided into an instruction cache I cache and a data cache D cache , but the Von Neumann architecture has a single cache. The microprocessor is the core in embedded systems. By installing a microprocessor into a special circuit board and adding the necessary peripheral circuits and expansion circuits, a practical embedded system can be created.
The microprocessor architecture determines the instructions, supporting peripheral circuits, and expansion circuits. There are a wide range of microprocessors: 4-, 8-, , , and bit, with performance from MHz to GHz, and ranging from a few pins to thousands of pins. Simple and efficient instructions. Realizes uncommon functions through combined instructions. Rich instruction system. Performs specific functions through special instructions; handles special tasks efficiently.
Requires a large amount of memory space for the assembler and features complex programs for special functions. Has a relatively simple assembler and features easy and efficient programming of scientific computing and complex operations. Has feature-rich circuit units, powerful functions, a large area, and high power consumption. Features a simple structure, a compact layout, a short design cycle, and easy application of new technologies.
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Features a simple structure, regular instructions, simple control, and easy learning and application. Features a complex structure, powerful functions, and easy realization of special functions. Determines the instruction system per specific areas, which is more suitable for special machines.
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Normally, a macro operation can be decoded into one or more micro operations to execute, but sometimes a decoder can combine several macro operations to generate a micro operation to execute. This process is known as x86 instruction fusion macro-ops fusion. For example, the processor can combine the x86 CMP Compare instruction and the x86 JMP Jump instruction to produce a single micro operation—the compare and jump instruction. This combination has obvious benefits: there are fewer instructions, which indirectly enhances the performance of the processor execution.
And the fusion enables the processor to maximize the parallelism between the instructions and consequently improve the implementation efficiency of the processor. The details follow.